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Exposure to such ACEs has been associated with poor health outcomes including substance use, mental ill-health, obesity, heart disease and cancer, as well as unemployment and continued involvement in violence.

criminal justice, education) means an understanding of ACEs should inform work across government departments.However, such intelligence is rare outside the USA, even in high-income countries.We present findings from a general population ACE study in a relatively deprived and culturally diverse part of the UK.The study was designed to examine associations between ACEs and poor health and social outcomes over the life course.Background Studies suggest strong links between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and poor adult health and social outcomes.

However, the use of such studies in non-US populations is relatively scarce.Results Increasing ACEs were strongly related to adverse behavioural, health and social outcomes.Compared with those with 0 ACEs, individuals with 4+ ACEs had adjusted odds ratios of the following: 3.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.74–5.73] for smoking; 3.72 (95% CI: 2.37–5.85) for heavy drinking; 8.83 (95% CI: 4.42–17.62) for incarceration and 3.02 (95% CI: 1.38–6.62) for morbid obesity.They also had greater risk of poor educational and employment outcomes; low mental wellbeing and life satisfaction; recent violence involvement; recent inpatient hospital care and chronic health conditions.Higher ACEs were also associated with having caused/been unintentionally pregnant aged Conclusions ACEs contribute to poor life-course health and social outcomes in a UK population.That ACEs are linked to involvement in violence, early unplanned pregnancy, incarceration, and unemployment suggests a cyclic effect where those with higher ACE counts have higher risks of exposing their own children to ACEs.