The United States, backed by the United Nations, defends South Korea, and then is confronted by communist China. Germans, Poles and Hungarians attempt to rise against Soviet rule. New premier Gorbachev knows the Soviets can't match the U. Analyzes recent developments in Europe such as the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, the weakening of the European Economic Community by the Middle East War and subsequent oil crisis, and the evolution of détente in relations between East and West. DVD 2810 [preservation copy]; Video/C 4895 In 1999 the fifteen EU member states made the decision to embark on enlargement of its membership to include a number of Central and Eastern European countries. After the mutiny within the French Army and revolution in Russia, the Germans were still firmly entrenched on the Western Front.
In mid-1951, the war grinds to a bloody stalemate but eventually an armistice is signed. In 1956, an uprising in Hungary is ruthlessly crushed by Soviet tanks. Within East Germany, Berlin is divided between East and West by an open border. and the Soviet Union are locked in a nuclear stand-off; each realizes that bombing the enemy could provoke retaliation and self-destruction. supplies billions of dollars of weapons to unlikely allies--Islamic fundamentalists. reacts with increasingly sophisticated technological intelligence--the U-2 spy-plane, satellite reconnaissance and electronic eavesdropping. Sometimes betrayers, sometimes betrayed, many spies pay with their lives. S., and wants to liberalize and reconstruct the Russian economy. Shorn of its empire and communist domination, Russia faces its future with its economy in chaos. At the 2001 Laeken Council, the EU member states decided on the formation of a Convention on the Future of Europe. The arrival of the United States forces in Europe would determine the outcome of the war.
In 1961, the Soviets launch Yuri Gargarin into space. The superpowers confront each other; but rather than embark on nuclear war, they each step back. Vietnam has been divided since the end of French colonial rule. In Czechoslovakia, Dubcek attempts limited reform, but in 1968, Soviet force crushes the Prague Spring. Chinese communists win the longest civil war in 20th century history. Gorbachev makes no effort to hold them back with force. Video/C 5742 A short history of the European Union with emphasis on the changes which must occur if a number of Eastern European countries which have applied for membership are accepted. How Putin came to power traces the stunningly rapid ascension of this political unknown to leadership of the Kremlin as the result of a power struggle between factions of the country's ruling oligarchs and a behind-the-scenes political deal. This program looks at the man, at the roots of his philosophy, at the causes and explanations of his philosophical development, and at its most direct outcome: the failed Soviet Union. Video/C 806 Wolf pack: U-boats in the Atlantic, 1939-1944.
The North is run by communists, the South by anti-communists. Mao's land reforms are popular but in 1958, he embarks on a series of catastrophic changes. Detente culminates in the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. has always regarded Latin America as its own backyard. Amid scenes of jubilation, the hated Berlin Wall comes down. German submarines called U-boats nearly wiped out Allied shipping in the Atlantic bringing deadly havoc by attacking in groups.
Ignoring warnings against involvement in a nationalist struggle, the United States commits its armed forces. China maintains an increasingly uneasy relationship with the Soviet Union. steps up its bombing campaign but seeks peace through diplomacy. Video/C 5740 Good Guys, Bad Guys, 1967-1978 The superpowers use surrogates to wage ideological and often physical conflict. Fearing the spread of communism, it seeks to destabilize leftist governments. The Battle of the Atlantic ended with the virtual extermination of German submarines.
In 1960 the Sino-Soviet split paves the way for President Nixon's historic visit to Beijing. North Vietnam launches a new offensive against the South. Nixon and Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT). In 19, American backed-Israel triumphs over Soviet-backed Egypt and Syria. supports South Africa in its battle against communism. In 1973, the CIA helps overthrow the Chilean President Salvador Allende; in the 1980s, it supports right-wing extremists in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Concern for human rights in the East grows; detente ebbs. Video/C 1611 Red Star: The Soviet Union, 1941-1943.
The dawn of the twentieth century was forged in hope and optimism. Though ideological enemies, the Soviet Union and the United States are allies against Hitler during WWII. Impoverished after the war, Great Britain opts out as a world power. DVD X2806 [preservation copy]; Video/C 4891 Human Rights, Fundamental Freedom, Portrayal of postwar Europe. So fell Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, the rest of the Balkans, half of Germany and half of Vienna.
Here interviewees from Europe, Asia and the United States (boasting an average age of 102), recount the part they played in the century's early history. At the end of the war, Europe is divided, and the one-time allies now confront each other knowing that the United States has the atomic bomb. The United States assumes the mantle of world leadership. The United States adopts the Truman doctrine, pledging to defend freedom worldwide. East Europe exchanged the tyranny of Hitler for the tyranny of Stalin. DVD 2807 [preservation copy]; Video/C 4892 How are the Mighty Fallen.Whether fighting on the barricades of the failed Russian Revolution of 1905 or campaigning for votes for women; recalling the Paris Exposition of 1900, or President Mc Kinley's assassination or witnessing the sinking of the Titanic, all remember the changes they lived through and the clash of forces and ideas before World War I. Secretary of State George Marshall plans to bolster economic recovery in Europe. Britain cast out the conservatives and rang in the Labour Party. Discusses the post-World War II establishment of the Iron Curtain and the beginning of Cold War tensions which reached a climax with the 1948-49 Russian blockade of West Berlin. Stalin insists that the governments of the Soviet Union's client states be pro-communist. Discusses the Nazi extermination camps and their brutality against Jewish and Slavic peoples.Seeing this as a threat, Stalin forbids his satellites to participate. Video/C 5735 Berlin, 1948-1949 In Berlin, the American, British and French sectors form a Western enclave in the Soviet zone of divided Germany. DVD 2808 [preservation copy]; Video/C 4893 A Certain Amount of Violence.In June 1948, the Soviets blockade the city, but the Western allies successfully airlift in supplies. Analyzes major historical developments in Europe in the mid-1950's.In August 1949, Soviet scientists explode an atomic bomb, establishing nuclear parity between the two superpowers. Following Stalin's domination of Eastern Europe and the loss of China, American democracy falls victim to anti-communist hysteria, but survives it. In the Soviet Union, Stalin reinforces the climate of terror on which his rule is based. Discusses the Soviet suppression of the Polish and Hungarian revolts, British and French involvement in the Suez, and the formation of the European Economic Community.